A Test for Finance: How Procurement Foiled a Bid-Rigging Plot in Hong Kong

When staff at the Administration Procurement Department of Hong Kong’s Young Women’s Christian Association (YWCA) were reviewing tender documents last year, they noticed a curious thing. The four bids that were submitted, although under the names of four different companies, contained the same information down to misspellings and grammatical errors – except for the bid amounts.

The staff alerted Director of Finance and Administration Gary Sze Yan, who is also in charge of the procurement unit. Sze conferred with his chief executive and the decision was made to refer the matter to Hong Kong’s Competition Commission. History was made in March when the regulatory body commenced proceedings against five IT companies, four of which had submitted bids.

“Tone at the top, leadership, is important. A zero-tolerant policy will help avert malpractices and achieve value-for-money in procurement”

It was the anti-trust regulator’s first legal action since Hong Kong’s Competition Law came into effect in 2015. “These proceedings drive home the message that market participants in all sectors should steer clear of bid manipulation practices, while those already involved in rigging bids should consider approaching the Commission for leniency,” said Anna Wu, the commission’s chairperson.

It was also proof that the systems in place at YWCA Hong Kong are working. “Procurement by its nature is prone to malpractices and manipulation, such as favoritism in sourcing and selection of suppliers and leakage of information,” says Sze. “We have stringent policy and procedures governing our procurement.” These include separation of functions and oversight and approval by an independent Tender Board of high-value transactions.

Strong signal

Sze cannot discuss the case in detail because the legal proceedings are still on-going. (Competition Tribunal President Godfrey Lam Wan-ho agreed with investigators’ request to keep identities and bid prices confidential.) But his experience and insights are useful for organizations in Hong Kong and other jurisdictions that now face a higher level of scrutiny from anti-trust regulators.

Bid-rigging and other such practices have long been suspected to be a fact of business life in Hong Kong. “Similar anti-competitive arrangements were found in the construction industry, where multiple parties are often involved in a tender,” notes Daniel Lai, former head of IT at MTR Corporation, the city’s subway operator. “But it’s the first time this is revealed in the IT industry.”

The case sends a strong signal to business and IT executives to review their procurement process, says Charles Mok, a member of the Legislative Council who represents the IT functional constituency. He is also a member of YWCA’s IT Development Committee, but is not involved in its tendering process. Business executives, says Mok, “must be more vigilant about potential liabilities and legal consequences.”

Company culture    

As a service organization, YWCA Hong Kong is more aware than most about its legal responsibilities with regards to procurement and other spending. “As an NGO, we probably have more varied stakeholders than a normal company in the private sector,” says Sze. The organization receives public funds and private-sector donations.

The first line of defense is the company culture. “Tone at the top, leadership, is important,” says Sze. “A zero-tolerant policy will help avert malpractices and achieve value-for-money in procurement.”

The procurement staff was thus primed to minutely evaluate and analyze the bids and immediately report signs of irregularity because they knew the leadership’s strict stance on compliance with internal and regulatory rules. That YWCA then reported the suspected collusion to the Competition Commission further reinforces this culture.

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